Mvc authorize attribute roles

Page copy protected against web site content

        infringement by Copyscape

However, you might get a situation where you need to secure your entire MVC application without using any login page. NET authorization supports only 2 layers authorization: users and roles. NET MVC form authentication with role provider - Duration: 18:22. NET Core controller and action access by passing roles to the Authorize attribute. Authorizing Access via Attributes in ASP. NET 5 and MVC 6: Authorization. Web. In the remarks, it  Jan 25, 2019 Add the Authorize attribute from the System. Here's an example of what I'm talking about. It will display tables for Users and Roles: Using Authorization for controlling Access of the Action methods of controller. Net MVC, you can pick apart the functionality and extend it yourself – In this post we will take a look at creating our own custom Authentication attribute. The reason for extending the AuthorizeAttribute class is that we might decide to store user credential information in a variety of differently data sources such as Active Directory, a database, an encrypted text file, etc…Or we might add custom logic to authorize a user. This Class override the IsInRole with our PermissionProvider to check the Role. NET MVC as the default project template provides all the necessary controller code, model and view to register and login. Adding role checks. The Authorize attribute let you mark the method access to a user or a group of user (called role). Following is the Controller class decorated with <authorize> Attribute. I need to control the access to views based on users privilege levels (there are no roles, only privilege levels for CRUD operation levels assigned to users) in my MVC 4 application. Net’s [Authorize] attribute is another cool feature that makes it easy to add authentication at the Controller level when building a website, but the real goldmine here is that like nearly everything else in ASP. The redirect loop problem happens when you have an authenticated user without the required privileges. What you are asking is third layer - group of roles or group of actions. 5 security - custom authorize attribute how to: create a Strongly Typed Roles in MVC with Authorize Attribute. Authorize Attribute with Multiple Roles. If you Simple example that shows how to add custom authorization to mvc5 project - roles are loaded from database. That way you NET MVC's AuthorizeAttribute. Authorize attribute and access policy; Access policy settings; Resource-based authorization; Authorization in Razor markup; Permission-based authorization. Authorize attribute parameters/values has to be compile ready. Authorization filters allow you to perform authorization tasks for an authenticated user. 5 with Windows Authentication & ASP. CEO: will be able to do everything, so contains all roles; Creating the application. Role-based authorization checks are declarative—the developer embeds them within their code, against a controller or an action within a controller, specifying roles which the current user must be a member of to access the requested resource. In the next post, ASP. NET MVC project this happens by using an authorize attribute not unlike the one shown below: [Authorize(Roles = "Programmer, Manager")] public ActionResult MyTopSecretActionForSuperCoolPeopleOnly() Unfortunately, the above code directly ties your action and controller code to your user roles. So here I am explaining on how to create custom authentication and mapping it to the default filters like Authorize, roles. net mvc [Authorize()] attribute for mixed group and user. NET MVC Authorization. Mvc; namespace WebApi { public class Startup { public  Feb 20, 2015 how beautifully WebAPI and MVC handle this by using the “AuthorizeAttribute” attribute. NET MVC. g. Gets or sets the roles required to access the controller or action method. NET Core MVC have not been much changed compared to the previous framework version. But what if you need to do check permissions inside a controller method e. Just one issue: When using [Authorize] attributes, such as [Authorize(Roles = "Company Administrator")], if the current user doesn't have a role claim that matches, the browser is redirected to the Azure login page. Custom Authorize Attribute. Since attributes in . NET Core as well). Authorization: Step 10: You can use Authorize attribute to restrict access by callers to an action method. Net MVC Razor. AuthorizeAttribute. NET MVC , Code Do you ever get frustrated with the limited nature of the ASP. Normally that would look like this: But I have stored my Roles in consts, since they might change or be extended at some point. The next step is to integrate this in the HR Tool, which is an ASP. For example, the following code limits access to any actions on @kaus - One thing to point out is that using a web. All I need to do is set the Roles property in the constructor to a comma delimited list of the authorized roles, and the authorize attribute base class will take care of the rest. The next level is that one can use the same [Authorize] attribute with the "Roles" descriptor (for a lack of a better word. Admin, Role. User Login Authentication and Roles based Security will be implemented using Custom Forms Authentication in ASP. The authorize attribute takes into account all of ASP. config a role provider to AD and it will works with the Authorize attribute. AuthorizeAttribute . Using the Authorize Attribute to Require Role Membership So far you've looked at the use of the AuthorizeAttribute to prevent anonymous access to a controller or controller action. NET MVC 4 Custom Authorize Attribute with Permission Codes (without roles) Ask Question. I am using ASP. Set the attribute's Roles property  NET MVC is that one of the inherent advantages is the whole notion of [ Authorize] attribute with the "Roles" descriptor (for a lack of a better  Mvc; using Microsoft. User)] To do this you need to create a custom authorization attribute which turns out to be surprisingly simple, this is all you have to do: Oct 13, 2016 Learn how to restrict ASP. This is an action filter class that  Using the Authorize Attribute to Require Role Membership So far you've looked at the use of the AuthorizeAttribute to prevent anonymous NET MVC 3 [Book] Jul 18, 2018 Rather than put an Authorize attribute on each method, you can put just one on Here's an example that lets anyone in the User role use the  Have you ever tried to use an [Authorize] attribute and assign roles for example with an Enum value in one of your ASP. ASP. Creating a Custom Authorize Attribute. However adding roles and assigning roles to a particular user seems to be lost in all these stuffs. Attempting to access a restricted controller action when you're not authorized redirects you to login, as I previously described in quite gory detail in a previous post titled Looking at how the ASP. x DB First approach. In ASP MVC we have the Authorize attribute to perform check at either a controller level or at a controller method level. If you have used ASP. It therefore inherits the controller’s [Authorize] attribute, allowing only authenticated users to access the Details view. Standard . AuthorizeAttribute is a Filter attribute which can be placed on ASP. NET MVC framework in order to build our system. What I actually want is for the browser to show one of my views. NameClaimType = "name" and RoleClaimType = "role" There are 13 claims, but none of them are my user role. NET are serialized into the assembly directly, any data passed into the attribute via a constructor must be assembly-serializable. NET MVC includes an [Authorize] attribute, which when placed on any controller actions will forbid unauthorized access. Apr 13, 2015 NET MVC alleviates the pain in attaining the role based security just by a simple yet powerful attribute known as Authorize. It is because you need to use static values and it makes impossible to use an Enum to set properties of an Attribute. I put a code break in the Get() method. These properties can contain comma (,) separated Users or Roles and hence we can access an action method for multiple users or roles. NET MVC By Brij Mohan It’s a step by step tutorial to implement custom role provider and authorization in ASP. [Authorize(Roles = "groupName1, groupeName2")] public ActionResult Creation() { // Custom RoleProvider, Authorization, EF DB First and ASP. [Authorize(Roles = "Admin, SuperAdmin")] // can be separated by comma public ActionResult AdminOnly() { return View(); } Above method will be accessible only to those user whose role is “Admin” or “SuperAdmin” defined in the AspNetUserRoles database table. In the example below, we make our own authorize attribute that requires an enum. However, you might get a situation like; you need to secure your entire MVC application without using any login page. This button gives two options – download or upload. I want to access Users and Roles in the Controller and Action, it belongs to. NET MVC alleviates the pain in attaining the role based security just by a simple yet powerful attribute known as Authorize. Stop the application and check the server explorer. I was told that role changes may occur in the future. TypeId TypeId TypeId: Gets the unique identifier for this attribute. NET Routing, whereas with web. This comes down to mixing the approach of authorizing roles in web. So for testing, open <base url>/Account/login. This same code works fine using MVC4. The State of Security in ASP. When we place the Authorize attribute on the controller itself, the authorize attribute applies to all of the actions inside. When standard types of authentication do not meet your requirements, you need to modify an authentication mechanism to create a custom solution. TAGs: ASP. If you are familiar with MVC then you might know, we can add Authorize globally in MVC by adding the Authorize attribute as below: GlobalFilters. Some users with revant permissions can attach files or make the blog post sticky. This filter is based on the AuthorizeAttribute class. In MVC, we can control the access of an action method from the controller using the Authorize attribute. Mar 29, 2016 In MVC, we can control the access of an action method from the controller using the Authorize attribute. NET MVC 4 also introduced a built-in AllowAnonymous attribute. This caused fear of the amount of work that would be required to add or edit roles if there are currently 20 to 30 roles and that each individual controller and sometimes individual actions were using the authorize attribute. As an example; below the AuthorizeUser will be my custom attribute and I need to use it like this: Roles Roles Roles: Gets or sets the user roles that are authorized to access the controller or action method. Once the roles and users are created and configured, it’s time for us to manage them and define access to the application. It’s possible by defining inside the web. This is possibly the worst coupling you can do between roles and authorization. The code snippet given above represents that if an authenticate user has the “User” role then he is authorized to access this action. The Asp. g let say your doing some update or create action to submit a blog post. However, as mentioned, you can also limit access to specific users or roles as well. Set Dependencies . NET MVC 4. Azure will whirr away for a short while changing settings on your AD Authorization is the process of determining the rights of an authenticated user for accessing the application's resources. net mvc membership provider tutorial to create users, roles, assign / mapp If you want to authorize entire Controller then Apply [Authorize] Attribute to  Apr 25, 2010 NET MVC project this happens by using an authorize attribute not unlike the one shown Define a configuration for controller/action roles: ? Jan 22, 2014 A user is authenticated by its identity and assigned roles to a user determine about . Using the Authorize Attribute to Require Role Membership. MVC 6 - Using Authorize attribute with Roles Jan 11, 2016 04:53 PM | BLiving | LINK I have an Intranet MVC 6 app hosted on IIS 7. NET MVC 5 Authentication Filters. Net MVC you might use the [Authorize] attribute over actions of your controllers. net MVC Membership provider along with that Registration of User and creating Role and Assigning role to Registered Users in asp. Authenticating and authorizing users from Active Directory in ASP. How Authorize Attribute Works ASP. Scenario. If you want to allow only certein users or certien roles, to access a controller action then you need to specify the users/roles that are authorized to Controller action using Authorize keyword. A good example is Role based authorization. If you would like to secure your admin pages, you need to add the “Authorize” attribute for all your admin controllers. Force Requests to Authorize. There are also multiple roles being used in the Authorize decoration on the same method. Then on the next page select Single sign on, read directory data. Do that and then select Change the directory access for this app. You can decorate a controller action, or an entire controller class with the authorize attribute. NET MVC before, you probably have used AuthorizationFilters. The current authorize attribute is easy to use and works great. SuperAdministrator)] public ActionResult Create() { return View(); } The reason why I did not use Roles = "Administrator,SuperAdministrator" was because the roles are hard-coded. NET only allows you to pass in a list of roles as a comma separated string to restrict access like this: [Authorize(Roles = "Admin, User, etc")] I wanted instead to use a strongly typed approach like passing in a list of enum values like this: [AuthorizeRoles(Role. Often times, after you’ve authenticated your users, you’ll want to authorize what they actually have control over based on role. In the MVC framework, the [Authorize] attribute provides data such as the names of roles and policies while the authorize filter contains the logic to check for roles and policies as part of the request pipeline. Net, Menu, Bootstrap, MVC Here Mudassar Ahmed Khan has explained with an example, how to implement Role based Security in ASP. [Authorize(Roles="Admin")] public ActionResult Users() { Authorize attribute of custom Role provider not working in MVC 5. A common example of where this is used is in administrative functions. Hello. You can override behavior of this attribute, but it will not resolve your problem. Have a nice day. All these docs use as an example traditional MVC, so dropping a few lines of code of equivalent-or-superior razor page framework would really help, or in the worst case some bold statement to explain to the reader that this also applies to Razor Pages but that the code is not shown. In MVC, the 'Authorize' attribute handles both authentication and authorization. ) For example: [Authorize(Roles="Admin")] The Method following this attribute is now tightly coupled to this Role "Admin". Security in Asp. Similarly, you can update JsonLogin action. net mvc 5 : 4. Authorization-Requirement . NET MVC AuthorizeAttribute. To configure your app you need to tap the Manage Access button down the bottom. NET is fairly easy. Extending ASP. 5. Claims does not contain the my user roles. config file. config you would have to know all the possible routing configurations in the app and take them into account. For example, if you are using roles and you annotate a controller action with the authorize attribute and specify the role “Admin”. how to develop CheckRolesAttribute and it OnAuthorization function as a result i could store passed roles name separated by comma and compare that user has that role or not ? i will fetch user role from db and check user has Admin or HrAdmin role or not. Let’s walk through the most common scenarios. Let’s get dive deep into it but if you are new to ASP. . up vote 102 down vote favorite. Open visual studio create a new project; 2. Filters. [Authorize(Roles = "OldRoleNameNoSpaces, New Role Name with Spaces")] public ViewResult MyActionName() The problem I'm running into is that it doesn't appear to be working this way. When I click either of the Call API links, User. The problem I am trying to avoid is doing something like [Authorize(Roles=”AdminRole”)] on a controller or action since I know the role names can change & one typo can mess everything up. 2. NET Core Identity is a membership system, which allows us to add authentication and authorization functionality to our Application. The [ authorize] attribute has not gone anywhere from MVC. But this tight coupling isn't necessarily a big deal. Decorate the action methods which you don’t want any anonymous user to access with Authorize Attribute. However any controller where [Authorize] attribute is being used, users are always redirect to the login page, even when user login and role are both valid. Just throw an attribute on a controller as follows: [Authorize (Roles="MyAdGroup")]  Nov 7, 2010 Custom Role Provider for MVC Authenticating Users with Forms specific group of user which are in specified roles by set Authorize attribute:. Users Users Users: Gets or sets the users that are authorized to access the controller or action method. The OnAuthorization Method of the Authorize Attribute looks for an AllowAnonymous Attribute on the action or the controller and bypasses authorization if this is the case. Administrator|Role. Mvc. NET MVC AuthorizeAttribute class's limited Roles property which provides only a  3) Show to make specific pages available only to select roles Remove the [ Authorize] attribute from the Index action and add it to the TestController as follows:  Oct 23, 2011 In detail, the controller or the action is marked with the Authorize attribute that defines which roles or users are granted access to the content  Jun 8, 2017 Scenario: If you would like to secure your admin pages, you would add “ Authorize” attribute for all your admin controllers. Gets or sets the user roles that are authorized to access the controller or action method. Now ASP. However, you might  Nov 6, 2015 Consider a scenario where you need all/ some of the actions of a controller to be invoked by users having specific roles. NET MVC Authorize interacts with ASP. The action method has also used Authorize attribute with roles, which represents that what role can access this action method. NET MVC application. 1. NET Identity MVC 5 step-by-step using C# Entity Framework Code First for Beginners asp. A user can create his/her own account with it and access the system, which is based on his/her roles or claims. etc. 0 with EF 4. AuthorizationAttribute with Windows Authentication in MVC 4 Posted on June 17, 2013 October 21, 2018 by James Still in C# , Security , Web Development With MVC 4 the Visual Studio team released the SimpleMembershipProvider . and the page display my roles, as displayed in the attached file. It violates separation of concerns and leads to hard to maintain code with roles names sprinkled all over your code base. Net MVC. In this example, we can see the roles that are required being passed into the constructor of the Authorize attribute. The authorize attribute exists both in MVC and Web API (and ASP. Select ASP. You do not need to have a custom Authorize attribute to use Active Directory. up vote 5 down vote favorite. NET MVC Interview Questions for experienced and beginners available here. Here's an example that lets anyone in the User role use the ListAdmins method: <OverrideAuthentication> <Authorize(Roles:="User")> Public Function ListAdmins() As ActionResult Unit Testing ASP. The Authorize Attribute is the built-in attribute provided by MVC which is basically used to authenticate a user. That is frustrating, because I personally don't like having to hard code roles in an application. NET Core If the roles are specified in the authorize attribute (e. 81. public enum Role { Administrator = 1, SuperAdministrator = 2 } My action method: [MyAuthorize(Roles = Role. I have an Intranet MVC 6 app hosted on IIS 7. I hope you will and also roles and resource-based policies. NET Application and name the project. . I am using [Authorize(Roles = @"DOMAIN\group")] filter on my controller met Custom Authorize Attribute with ASP. Moderator)] public class AdminController : Controller { private MasterDbContext Context  May 26, 2017 Familiar to many developers, the one-dimensional role-based model is . I would like to add Authorization to a controller, for multiple Roles at once. Roles. 4. Like Like The stock standard AuthorizeAttribute that ships with . Typically in an ASP. Finally, I'd like to mention that we are using ASP. and Authorize Attributes on MVC Controllers e. The new Authorize Attribute My main gripe with the old attribute is that it pushes developers towards hard-coding roles (or even worse – names) into their controller code. In general, it works well, with the help of extension to handle AJAX calls elegantly, and to distinguish between unauthorized users and those who are not logged in. Setting the Roles property on the [Authorize] attribute will ensure that the user must be logged in and assigned the Administrator role in  Oct 16, 2010 Do you ever get frustrated with the limited nature of the ASP. Decorated both the Create () and Create (FormCollection collection) actions with the [Authorize (Roles = “Admin”, Users = “Ross”)] attribute. Each Active Directory group represents a user role with a specific scope of The main functionality for authorizing users would be the Authorize -attribute  NET MVC's [Authorize] attribute is another cool feature that makes it easy to add For our needs we will create the following Enum to declare roles: Right click  Oct 12, 2018 you cannot just simply use the Authorize attribute and add Roles on it, that to use OpenId Connect Authentication rather than Okta MVC. [Authorize(Roles  Jan 8, 2019 How to build an API with role based authorization / access control in ASP. NET MVC Custom Authorize Attribute with Roles Parser 16 October 2010 Tyler-Jensen ASP. Here is the class definition of a page with the Authorize attribute on it: Only users in the Editor role will be able to access this page. NET MVC 4 was able to bypass the Authorize Attribute, and the answer is in the Authorize Attribute's OnAuthorization Method. In Next Video we will have a look How to override Authorize Attribute. Scenario: If you would like to secure your admin pages, you would add “Authorize” attribute for all your admin controllers. NET MVC 5 Identity: Implementing Group-Based Permissions Management, look at working around the limitations of the Role/[Authorize] model to create a more finely-grained role-based access control system. Custom Authentication With ASP. NET Forms Authorization . Feb 9, 2014 Active Directory based authorization in . 5 security - custom authorize attribute how to: create a I was curious as to how the AllowAnonymous Attribute in ASP. So far you've looked at the use of the AuthorizeAttribute to prevent anonymous access to a controller or controller action. This gives you a high degree of control over who is authorized to view any page on the site. This is role based authorization. How to override Authorize Attribute in Intranet project. Authorize attribute in ASP. Mar 9, 2015 I'll explain how to write a custom role provider in ASPASP Dot Net MVC applications to extract On my authorization server, the roles are passed under a property named roleAttributeName . Select MVC template. All the public methods inside the Controllers can be easily accessed if one knows the method name and the route pattern. 1 with Windows authentication. Azure AD, Groups, Roles and the Authorize Attribute. Steps to follow. abctutorial 72,878 views Note: In ASP. In the MVC framework there are filters that execute in sequence. Custom Authorize Attribute . I am not a member of the group and would not need to be a member of this group. Simple example that shows how to add custom authorization to mvc project - roles are loaded from database. Please Sign up or sign in to vote. NET MVC AuthorizeAttribute class’s limited Roles property which provides only a simple comma delimited list and creates a simple OR list? If you are developing a website with Asp. NET MVC In default all the Controllers and Action methods are accessible by both Anonymous and Authenticated users. Our Principal needs our PermissionProvider, which will check the Roles from this User. Nov 24, 2018 NET MVC project, this can be achieved by using an authorize attribute, Before Start Implementing Dynamic Role-based Authorization we  Asp. Net Impersonation enabled. Unit Testing ASP. You can put Authorize attribute on any action or whole controller. 2   Make sure you are deriving your custom attribute class off System. Note, we must also specify role provider which will be used within Web. If you are developing a website with Asp. They work all the same with regards to role checks. The AuthorizeAttribute allows you to specify a list of roles or users, like this: You can also place the AuthorizeAttribute on a controller, in which case it will apply to all actions in the controller. NET MVC 4, default template login is based on ajax. For example, a  [Authorize] [RequiredRole(Roles = Constants. C# Copy Applies to. 3. Custom authorization filter; Claims. Roles based authorization attribute in Controller or Action level in ASP. Net MVC Framework has a AuthorizeAttribute filter for filtering the authorized user to access a resource. But it relies heavily on magic strings. Authorization is the process of determining the rights of an authenticated user for accessing the application's resources. For this to work the Rule needs to be configured which adds the user's permission to the token in the authentication pipeline. Custom Authorize Attribute with ASP. Add(new AuthorizeAttribute() { Roles = "Admin, SuperUser" }); You can then follow the OverrideAuthentication attribute with whatever Authorize attribute your method actually needs. They differ in details. Roles : string with get, set asp. NET MVC 1. Http. I trying to only authorize members of a group and myself. NET MVC project this happens by using an authorize attribute not unlike the one shown below: Authentication (Login and Registration) is simple in ASP. In this article, we In ASP MVC we have the Authorize attribute to perform check at either a controller level or at a controller method level. When the user is authenticated successfully, Authorize Attribute filter will be invoked automatically to check if the user has access or not for requested resource and role provider is the class that is responsible to do that based on user role. If we passed an enum as the role and if that enum ever changed, the application will no longer compile until the enum is updated throughout the application. [Authorize(Roles = Role. NET MVC projects? If so, you will get the   Jul 22, 2013 In MVC, the 'Authorize' attribute handles both authentication and the action method only to certain user names and/or users with a given role. Authorization: It means giving permission to access or deny particular resources or pages for user. The ASP. Role-Based Authorization. Let's get dive deep . MVC Role based authorization with Azure Active Directory (AAD) The manifest file can be found in the Management Portal, again under Active Directory, find your application and click on it, then you will see a Manage Manifest button in the toolbar at the bottom. Add(new AuthorizeAttribute() { Roles = "Admin, SuperUser" }); Custom Authentication and Authorization in ASP. Jan 17, 2013 In short you need to load your custom roles (or claims) from your custom . net mvc with demos. NET MVC Authorization and Security It is only a matter of time in developing most websites that you'll need to implement a way of restricting access to parts of the site. Ask Question. AuthorizeAttribute and NOT System. public string Roles { get; set; } member this. For building custom authentication, we use membership provider class which is able to check the user credentials (username & password) and role provider class that is used to verify the user authorization based on his/her roles. Authorization and authentication principles in ASP. May 24, 2011 The idea is fairly simple: you assign users to roles and roles have permissions. NET MVC project, this can be achieved by using an authorize attribute, Something like this: [Authorize(Roles = "Manager, SecondUser")] public ActionResult HelloWorld() Now Only “Manager” & “SecondUser” can access the HelloWorld Action. It means that you can not set the property Roles of an [AuthorizeAttribute] with an Enum value. When creating the custom authorize attribute I inherit from AuthorizeAttribute since it already contains most of the logic I need. This is an action filter class that provides Users and Roles properties. If you add role restrictions here and you want to whitelist a controller or controller action later on (my case was for a status page to ensure the app was running) then things get a bit tricky. The claims that go into the principal depend on whatever the issuer sends and other factors like your claims transformation logic. config in an MVC app has the potential for security holes. Dec 7, 2013 Azure AD, Groups, Roles and the Authorize Attribute Configuring a new MVC 5 website to authenticate against an Azure Active Directory is  May 30, 2014 But one of the few things you see is how to use Roles to show and hide on page public class AdminAuthorizeAttribute : AuthorizeAttribute  Feb 13, 2014 When roles are used to enforce access restrictions within our application, they are basically hard-coded, usually via the [Authorize] attribute. NET MVC, it’s recommended to review a comprehensive list of ASP. config and attribute based role checking. Own Principal Implementation . Recently I developed a strategy which I think works well for authorizing access to user groups (Roles) without using the string names of those groups. Mvc namespace to your controller classes or action methods. The Authorize attribute lets you indicate that authorization is restricted to predefined roles or to individual users. Roles Gets or sets the user roles that are authorized to access the controller or action method. Thoughts on ASP. NET MVC Overview : Modern web development has many challenges, and of those security is both very important and often under-emphasized. NET MVC actions or entire controllers to prevent unauthorized access. The Authorize Attribute is at Class level and at Action level too. The MVC framework will not allow a request to reach an action protected by this attribute unless the user passes an authorization check. We create a Principal-Class deriven from ClaimsPrincipal. NET MVC Without Magic Strings. How to write the [Magic Code] for this? I am trying to have Authorization and Authentication with built-in MVC Authorize. The sequence is: Authorization Filters Action Filters Result Filters Exception Filters ; It's clear that Authorization filters are taking care of authorizing the current user. We will see how to create database schema for Asp. mvc authorize attribute roles

hj, qs, er, jx, xc, 6v, 9b, ji, d8, p9, rh, cv, hl, 80, li, 9p, 49, s1, xp, rp, cs, m2, am, yb, qi, 8i, dl, xv, cc, fu, mu,